Carbohydrates are the principal supplier of energy for our organism at fulfillment of different physical exercises. However the role of the given component of a food frequently or is underestimated, or, on the contrary, the person starts to abuse acceptance in food of the increased quantity of these substances. What is true role of carbohydrates in a food?
It is known that the basic quantity of the carbohydrates arriving in our organism as a part of dishes mainly contains in a phytogenesis foodstuff. The greatest quantity of carbohydrates is revealed in various grades of bread (on the average from 40 to 50 gram in 100 grams of a product), in groats (about 65-70 gram), pasta (70-75 gram). The considerable quantity of carbohydrates contains in pastry. It is enough to tell that the sugar, which is an obligatory component for manufacturing of sweets, cakes, pies, chocolate and other sweets, represents almost pure hundred-per-cent carbohydrates.
The share of carbohydrates in a food of the person is considered optimum in number of 56 % from all caloric content of a daily diet. Considering that 1 gram of carbohydrates gives at splitting in an organism of 4 kcal, and the menu for the adult woman should ensure 2600 – 3000 kcal a day, that, accordingly, for the account of carbohydrates should be delivered approximately 1500-1700 kcal. The given power value corresponds to 375-425 grams of carbohydrates.
However to plan total of the given components of food in the menu and to consider their caloric content is not enough for maintenance of a high-grade food. The matter is that about 80 % from all carbohydrates should have components, which are slowly digested in a gastrointestinal tract. As an example of such substances it is possible to name the starch which high contents is noted in bread and farinaceous food, groats, a potato. Other part of an organism requirement in carbohydrates should be satisfied for the account of monosaccharides and disaccharides. To the most important monosaccharides it is possible to put a glucose and fructose – there are much of them in various vegetables and fruits having sweetish smack. From disaccharides we can name sucrose, or as we name this substance in a usual life – the sugar received from a beet or a sugar cane – it is the most known and accessible to us.
The dominant role of carbohydrates in our food consists in delivery of energy for every possible physiological reaction in an organism. The insufficient contents of the given substances in a food leads to the increased power expenditure of protein molecules, and it, in turn, negatively affects the regenerative processes proceeding in muscles after fulfillment of physical exercises. Therefore during active trainings in fitness clubs – the quantity of carbohydrates in a diet can be a little increased. However at the same time it is necessary to remember that at redundant receipt in an organism carbohydrates can execute also a negative role. Surplus of the given substances is capable to turn to fats and to be postponed in the form of a fatty fabric, forming excess weight of a body. Especially easily promotes adiposity such carbohydrates as the sugar, which overworks receipt at a food, leads to increase of level of cholesterol in blood, and also promotes development of caries. Negative role of the sweet foodstuff containing sugar, it is possible to reduce for the account of their replacement with the dishes prepared on the basis of other carbohydrates, constituting a basis of sweetish taste of honey, fruit and berries.
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